What is testicular cancer?

It is a disorder of the testicles, which is the second most common cancer among men, especially among mid-aged men. It is the growth of some malignant cancerous cells in one or both of the testes which are located in the scrotum. The testes are like eggs in the scrotum sac of the penis which protects the testicles from getting hurt. The first sign of testicular cancer is a bump or lump on the testes which is not painful.

 Are there causes of cancer?

In the case of testicular cancer, the cause is mostly unknown. 

What are the risk factors of testicular cancer?

The risk factors are listed below:

  1. Cryptorchidism (undescended testes) 
  2. Family history of testicular cancer 
  3. HIV infection 
  4. Age (20-45 years)
  5. Height of a man, mostly tall men
  6. Race and ethnicity (more white than black people)
  7. Intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN)

Symptoms of Testicular Cancer

The symptoms of testicular cancer are listed below:

  1. Lump or swelling in the testicles 
  2. Feeling of unevenness 
  3. Back pain 
  4. Feeling of heaviness in the scrotum 
  5. A dull ache in the lower belly or groin

Diagnosis of Testicular Cancer

The diagnosis of testicular cancer is highlighted below:

  1. Physical examination: this is done when the medical personnel assess the testes for lumps and bumps 
  2. Ultrasound: It is an imaging test done to know the location of the lump in the testes 
  3. Computerized Topography (CT scan): This is an imaging test done to know or detect the extent of metastasis.
  4. Positron emission tomography (PET): This is an imaging test carried out to find if there is the presence of malignant tumor cells in the body.
  5. Tumor marker test: It is carried out to detect the presence of tumor markers to check if the tumor is present.

How can Testicular Cancer be prevented?

Testicular cancer doesn’t have any special preventive measure; it is just advisable that men do thorough testicular self-examination to prevent cancer, not smoke and reduce their intake of alcohol as a man. 

What are the steps in doing Testicular Self Examination carried out?

  1. Stand before a mirror after a morning shower, because this is when the testes are still warm.
  2. Hold the testes with your thumb and index finger then check for abnormalities, swellings, bumps, and any unusual enlargement. 
  3. Roll the testes between your fingers 
  4. Do the same for the second testes
  5. Examine on a monthly basis. 

Complications of Testicular Cancer 

  1. Infertility 
  2. Pulmonary embolism 
  3. Hypogonadism 
  4. Metastasis to other organs 


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