CHOLECYSTITIS DISORDER OF THE GASTROINTESTINAL SYSTEM

 What is cholecystitis?

Cholecystitis disorder of the digestive system is an acute or chronic inflammation of the gall bladder wall, which occurs when gall stones lodges in the cystic duct. 

It results in blockage of the normal flow of bile which results in inflammation.

The presence of fat in the duodenum stimulates contraction of the gall bladder increasing pain and growth of bacteria occurs that causes edema to obstruct the flow of bile, and pus accumulates in the gall bladder. 

It occurs more often in women than in men.

Causes of Cholecystitis 

The causes of cholecystitis are listed below:

  1. Cholelithiasis (calculi or gall stones) 
  2. Trauma
  3. Infection 
  4. Obstruction of the cystic duct.
  5. Massive burns 

Predisposing factors of cholecystitis 

  1. Obesity
  2. Hereditary 
  3. Blood vessels problem 
  4. Diabetes mellitus 
  5. Massive burns 
  6. Tumor

Types of Cholecystitis 

The two classifications of cholecystitis are listed below:

  1. Acute cholecystitis: This type of cholecystitis occurs suddenly with intense pain and doesn’t go away, when proper treatment is not gotten the condition is worsened with difficulty in breathing. One of the typical symptoms is clay-colored stool.
  2. Chronic Cholecystitis: This type of cholecystitis occurs gradually over time they feel almost all the symptoms it primarily occurs in the evening or at night the typical symptom of chronic cholecystitis is loose light-colored stool. 

Signs and Symptoms of cholecystitis 

The signs and symptoms of cholecystitis include the following:

  1. Nausea and vomiting 
  2. Pain in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen 
  3. Pain that radiates to the shoulder and neck 
  4. Tenderness of the stomach when palpated 
  5. Fever
  6. Yellowish eyes (signs of jaundice) 
  7. Flatulence 
  8. Heartburn 
  9. Indigestion 
  10. Fat intolerance (not being able to eat fatty foods) 
  11. Abdominal bloating
  12. Clay-colored stool
  13. Loose light-colored stool

Diagnostic Techniques 

The diagnostic techniques used in diagnosing cholecystitis include the following:

  1. Blood tests: it is required to detect if there is any infection that is causing the cholecystitis. 
  2. Imaging tests: Computerized Topography (CT) scan, Abdominal Ultrasound, and endoscopic ultrasound used to create an image of the gall bladder to reveal signs of gall stones that might be causing the disorder.
  3. Hepatobiliary Iminodiacetic Acid (HIDA) Scan: It is a radioactive scan done by injecting a radioactive dye into the body to the bile-producing cells, to view the flow of bile in the bile ducts. 

Treatment of cholecystitis 

In most cases of cholecystitis, they always get hospitalized and they are told to go on nil per oral with intravenous fluid infused with glucose alongside fluids infused with pain medication and antibiotics.  

Surgical Treatment of Cholecystitis

The surgical treatment recommended for cholecystitis is called Cholecystectomy, which is a minimally invasive procedure of removal of the gall bladder the gall bladder is removed bile flows directly into the small intestine and is excreted as a waste product. 

Complications of cholecystitis 

The complications of cholecystitis are listed below: 

  1. Fistula 
  2. Gall bladder distension 
  3. Cholestasis
  4. Infection of the gall bladder known as emphysematous cholecystitis
  5. Pancreatitis 
  6. Gall stone ileus 
  7. Adenocarcinoma of the gall bladder
  8. Cholangitis

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